Interestingly, the reduced sensitizing capacity was preserved in the isolated native whey protein fraction of raw milk. The panel was trained by supervised classification on the basis of defined criteria and intra- and inter-personal variation was assessed. Whilst, knowledge for furthering the development of this farmin, research activities and results with the g, peer-reviewed publications on issues in biodynamic food, and farming that have been published between 2006 and. also Turinek et al. biodynamic agriculture and its characteristic elements. $34.95. Cosmic Flavour, Spiritual Nutrition? Bacterial cultures that have been, identified in horn silica were producers of auxin w, had a significant growth-enhancing effect on corn (, analyzed the microbial load of the biodynamic prepara-, tion horn silica (501) and its activity against chosen rice, main bacterial isolates. The studies provide substantial evidence for positiv, effects of biodynamic management on agroec, 2) Biodynamic preparations create effects on food chemi-, 3) Biodynamic production can improve the v. plant traits compared to non-biodynamic management. Red Emmalie and Vitelotte. the five production methods were precisely separated. This article is protected by copyright. Maneva et al. These amendments, shall impulse the soil in a way comparable to homeopathic, practice. The applica-, tion of horn silica increased the yield of black gram (, tilization by 27% compared to the treatment without horn, significantly increased with horn manure and horn silica, tests was enhanced by treatments of the parent plants. In three out of four harvest years, the biodynamic samples exhibited the highest structure forming efficacy and resistance to aging. Enrollment Option:: Standard Enrollment Current/Previous Participants. 2005). 2.Generating Fertility on the Farm 3.The Biodynamic preparations and wider connections 4.Generating disease, insect and weed control on the farm 5.Integration of livestock 6.On-farm water and waterway conservation 7.Gentle post harvesting and handling. The treatments differed in terms of fertilization and plant protection methods as well as choice of cover crops. reaction of metal salts with grape juice were evaluated using biocrystallisation, circular chromatography and capillary dynamolysis image forming methods. 2017). When sowing, before fertilizing with nitrogen in early June and after the harvest, the amount of soil mineral nitrogen was monitored. Therefore, further research is necessary with respect to root growth and the nitrogen and water uptake dynamics of vines and cover crops. Author: MATTHIAS. What Has Been Thought and Taught on the Lunar Influence on Plants in Agriculture? In three out of four harvest years, the biodynamic samples exhibited the highest structure forming efficacy and resistance to aging. (2016), also had the highest total phenolic content fol-, ) through the combined application of the biod, ) (Heimler et al. The content of soil mineral nitrogen in May and September was significantly influenced by the production system and the year. Methods and results: Characteristic changes in structures created by the reaction of metal salts with grape juice were evaluated using biocrystallisation, circular chromatography and capillary dynamolysis image forming methods. Temporal development and trend of the number of peer-reviewed publications on biodynamic food and farming in the scientific literature 2006-2017, Thematic distribution of peer-reviewed publications in biodynamic food and farming. Moreover, allergen‐specific IgE levels and Th2 cytokines were significantly lower in raw milk sensitized mice. : Research into biodynamic food and farming has, ‘Spiritual Foundations for a Renewal of Agri-. Biodynamics has metaphysical and spiritual roots that organics does not. The differences between grapes produced under organic and biodynamic management emphasize the need for more research on the mode of action of biodynamic preparations. (2015), a healthy soil can be defined as a, vices at a high level. Books & Calendars . Döring et al. Biodynamic Farming parallels organic farming in many ways "especially with regard to cultural and biological farming practices". 2015). In the second in a new series looking at Biodynamic Farming regular Indie Farmer contributor Tom Petherick answers some of the questions surrounding biodynamics.. N ew entrants into farming and horticulture, particularly those interested in organic production systems, are likely to encounter biodynamics at some point. The overall aim was to understand the effects of these different viticultural practices on soil quality and plant morphology as the basis for product quality. Response to farmers requests for ideas on how to improve yields and soil health. 8 A better balanced and more autonomous farming organism! (2016), which is a method for the, evaluation of food-induced emotions. Research into biodynamic food and farming has a long history within the biodynamic movement. In principle, the concept of soil heal. We find that the method of management significantly affects communities in soil, on plant structures, and on the developing crop in subtle but importantly different ways in terms of number, type, and abundance of species. The vegetative and reproductive development of the grapevines, as well as their susceptibility to fungal diseases in the field, wood and grape composition, and grape yield, were investigated. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. While organic farming has been around since the pre-Green Revolution era in India, biodynamic farming, which, although popular in Europe—where it was first introduced in 1925—is only now slowly being actively introduced in the farming community in India. and spray preparations in three variations of fertilization, significant effect on the development of chili plants (, icantly increased by the application of compost prepa-, rations (Reeve et al. He has worked in market … The concept is as the word itself would suggest: a combination of biological and dynamic practices, "bio" meaning life and "dyn" meaning force. A comparison of selected behavioural measures and existing breeding traits. 2019). (201, be considered as hints towards properties of food beyond, Research into biodynamic farming has a long hist, countries directly after Steiner’s lectures at K, dations through on-farm experiments. (2015) also, found less Botrytis in biodynamic production. To further assess the scientific merits of this methodology, a panel of nine evaluators was trained in the visual assessment of biocrystallization images and asked to rank the visual Gestalt decomposition level of encoded images of wheat extracts from i) the same production system at five different decomposition stages and ii) organic production systems vs. conventional production systems aged for the same amount of time. Both programs are open to established farmers and apprentices and may be pursued regardless of location. Jayachandran et al. In the cultivation of pumpkin, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, urease and sucrose, test years of using horn manure treatment (Juknevičienė, rations concerning food quality are described in the next, Heimler et al. Differences in nutritional, ) but it was not possible to differentiate, Dudaš S., Poljuha D., Šola I., Šegula S., V, Trivedi A., Sharma S.K., Hussain T., Sharma S.K., Gupta P. This paper reviews the beliefs which drive some agricultural sectors to consider the lunar influence as either a stress or a beneficial factor when it comes to organizing their tasks. The Biodynamic Association (BDA) awakens and enlivens co-creative relationships between humans and the earth, transforming the practice and culture of agriculture to renew the vitality of the earth, the integrity of our food, and the health and wholeness of our communities. on life processes), or the biodynamic preparations. The structures are known to reflect food quality, such as degree of decomposition. Samples from the integrated treatment showed, et al. F, to acknowledge the helpful comments of the anon, Biodynamic Management, Plos One, 2015, 10, 1-28, and existing breeding traits, Appl. Two complementary spray preparations. Conclusions: In the present study, organic and especially biodynamic management resulted in a morphology favouring production of high-quality grapes. In a trial in Vietnam, the yield of, compared to the control without preparations (T, Ferandez 2007). Acute allergic symptoms, mast cell degranulation, allergen‐specific IgE levels and cytokine concentrations were determined upon challenge. tion of biodynamic researchers and farmers. 2015). 4) Biodynamic management improves grape quality and plant traits compared to non-biodynamic management. Food Agric., 2011, 92, 5, fertility and production under roughage ba, dairy herds, Livest. Biodynamic r, lowed by red beets grown under organic conditions and, (Maciel et al. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The, trial at Darmstadt compared biodynamic manag, the application of biodynamic preparations in the biody, namic treatment) and to a non-organic treatment without, the application of organic manure, but with synthetic, N-fertilizer application (Raupp and Oltmanns 2006). Additionally, previous studies have been constrained as they only examined one habitat in an ecosystem and have not gone on to evaluate the effect of agricultural approach on harvested crops. In this study, the effects on grape juice quality resulting from the conversion of vineyard plots from integrated to organic and biodynamic management vs. integrated management were assessed using image forming methods. The contribution of biodynamics to organic agriculture is significant, however, and warrants more attention. 2012), nor in the survey of pasture soils by Burkitt et al. To assess the allergenicity of raw (unprocessed) and processed cow's milk in a murine model for food allergy as well as in cow's milk allergic children. No differences in polyphenolic content from differ-, ent production systems was found for chicory (, quality and phenolic acid contents in tomatoes (, and biodynamic) (D’Evoli et al. Thus, we identify the development of appropriate methods and study designs for a holistic examination as a major challenge of future research in biodynamic food and farming. The rank order between the organic systems vs. the conventional systems was significant. Biodynamic Farming ; 3 Why Biodynamic? 2016). 2009; Busscher et al. The results showed that significantly higher amounts of P (respectively 106 and 79 mg kg ⁻¹ CAL), K (149 and 106 mg kg ⁻¹ CAL), nitrogen (5.41 and 3.21 mg kg ⁻¹ ), ammoniacal nitrogen (9.38 and 3.45 mg kg ⁻¹ ) and mineral nitrogen (7.97 and 5.67 mg kg ⁻¹ ) were measured in the plots where the horn-manure preparation was used. This included the analysis of criterion validity at animal and at herd level and of repeatability of the BM over time. This, be argued that the effect on soil properties may ther, not be related to biodynamic farming, as it c, is true in principle, the situation reflects actual farming, practice, where biodynamic management by its char. agriculture has been studied by Pechrová (2014). Methods Overall, 86 articles were included into this review. The main aim of a three-year study was to investigate the influence of horn-manure preparation on enzyme activity and nutrient content in soil and pumpkin yield. Significance and impact of the study: In recent years, both winegrowers and consumers have expressed steadily growing interest in organic and especially biodynamic wine production. Furthermore, juices produced from the integrated management system exhibited more structures, indicative of a lower resistance to aging. We evaluated the number and weight of harvestable, unripe and decayed fruits, and yield of oil seed pumpkins and calculated the agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients. In the Czech, Republic the efficiency of resources in biodynamic and, ciency was found for organic farms (Pechrov, and energy analysis in integrated and biod, orchards, the biodynamic production had a low, ronmental impact and lower demand for energy (Per, et al. Until now, the effects of biodynamic management have usually been studied with classical analytical methods in natural and life sciences through disciplinary and reductionist study designs. 2012; Hart-, mann et al. Methods and results: As indicators of soil quality, earthworm abundance and the activity of selected enzymes were assessed. Biodynamic, farm management should maintain or improve the health, of this organism by supporting the function of all these, organs, as well as of the relationships betw, the environment. 2010), ) was significantly increased more than 30% by, (Radha and Rao 2014). C3H/HeOuJ mice were either sensitized to whole milk (raw cow's milk, heated raw cow's milk or shop milk (store‐bought milk)) and challenged with cow's milk protein or they were sensitized and challenged to whey proteins (native or heated). However, management approach has no effect on communities in the final harvested juice, nor on product traits aligned with quality. 2007). In particular, this study tested the effects of cultivation method, aging time and juice concentration on structure formation. Althou, the preparations are not easily comprehensible from a, effectivity of the preparations in contemporary scientific, literature, as will be shown later in this review, The breeding of robust plants and animals for a high, product quality has always been an important c, biodynamic farming. The agricultural practice has been carried out in accordance with the applicable legislations and standards for the individual production system. 2020-09-17; in ; MATTHIAS. The aim of the research was to analyse the effects of different production systems, varieties (hybrid and population variety) and years of production, on formation of oil pumpkin yields. Changes in bacterial populations (F, of soil organic carbon by microbes (Sradnick et al. of acetic acid compared to the integrated (Döring et al. The overall aim was to understand the effects of these different viticultural practices on soil quality and plant morphology as the basis for product, An on-vineyard approach was used to investigate the effects of biodynamic (BD) preparations on soil microbial biomass and microbial functional diversity in five vineyards on calcareous bedrocks under organic management. The method, of 1H NMR (a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), seems to be a successful method for the differentiation of, wine from different production systems (Lag, Ross et al. This was interpreted as the latter two production systems having higher structure formation efficacy. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the effects on grapevine growth and morphological development of shifting to these methods as a way to increase product quality. Only two studies found no si, nificant soil or plant reaction. A high amount of bioac-, detected in horn silica by Giannattasio et al. Therefore, popular agricultural practices that are tied to lunar phases have no scientific backing. A, study that shows links between circular chromato, pattern and selected chemical soil parameters has been, it is assumed that crystallization patterns do not only. This issue will be discussed later on. 15 … based only on the chemical composition of a food crop, but could include a survey of the full chain of effect from, crop production to the impact on human health and, The number of peer-reviewed studies in biodynamic food, and farming is gradually increasing. All rights reserved. Biodynamic Farming: Sustainable Solution Alison Caldwell 2012 The day is coming when a single carrot, freshly observed, will set off a revolution. Compared with plots under integrated management, plots under the two biological treatments were characterized by higher soil quality and lower vegetative growth and grape yield, and therefore higher exposure of grapes and lower grape cluster compactness, and, probably as a result of these morphological differences, lower incidence of acetic acid rot. (2009, 2011) showed that biodynamic, et al. Aim: The effects of integrated, organic and biodynamic management on soil quality and the growth and morphological development of Riesling grapevines were assessed during the first 4 years of a long-term field trial in Geisenheim, Germany. 2015; Laghi et al. DOWNLOAD NOW » The original biodynamic sowing and planting calendar, now in its 59th year.This useful guide shows the optimum days for sowing, pruning and harvesting various plants and crops, as well as working with … A, Lehmann et al. Guzzon et, al. For dairy cattle breeding as well as animal welfare science reliability and validity issues regarding measures of cows’ responsiveness towards humans are relevant. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the effects on grapevine growth and morphological development of shifting to these methods as a way to increase product quality. Biodynamic farming is the oldest 'green' farming movement, and forerunner of organics. The results showed that the year of production, the production system and the variety have a significant effect on some fruit characteristics and the yield of oil pumpkin seeds. No signif-, icant differences in bacterial and fungal communities, spp. (2009) were able to differentiate org. 12 PDF lessons via email, sent monthly. Biocrystallization, is an example for a new analytical method that already, gained reputation in the scientific literature (e.g. Some investigations succeeded, with regard to their chemical substances (Parpinello et, al. In addition, 4 papers come, from the region of Australia/New Zealand, 4 papers from, North America and 4 from South America, while 7 papers, Publications could be clustered into six topics (Fi, 2): twenty-one papers relate to aspects of soil quality and, health, 15 papers address effects of the biodynamic prepa-, rations, 20 papers are on food quality, 18 r, and one review papers deal with aspects in viticulture, ity of biodynamic farming systems, the dev, The total number of citations (90) is slightly hig, the number of references (86), as single referenc, The thematic perspective of the papers thus does not, cover all characteristics of biodynamic agricultur. To address the link between lunar phases and agriculture from a scientific perspective, we conducted a review of textbooks and monographs used to teach agronomy, botany, horticulture and plant physiology; we also consider the physics that address the effects of the Moon on our planet. application; 16 years (A1 and A2) and 1–3 years (B, C1, and C2). (2006) and Turinek et al. Sangiovese red wines produced from organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BDN) vineyards over two consecutive vintages (2011 and 2012) were compared for chemical and sensory parameters to investigate a sustainable approach to grape production. Masi et al. Huber et al. research in biodynamic food and farming, and to, on an overview of published articles in peer- reviewed, scientific journals with a focus on the period from 2006, In biodynamic agriculture, a farm is considered an or, as a role model for the understanding of this farm organ-, farming system – such as arable fields, pastures, wild, areas, the soil, the animals, the plants and the humans-, hold the same functions as human body organs that are, all vital for the individual farm as a whole. Soils, 2004, 40, 222-229. Apparently, behavioural measures at the feeding gate reflect partly similar and partly different aspects of cows’ responsiveness towards humans. samples (Doesburg et al. Radha and Rao (2014) further assume, that the bacterial and fungal populations in biodynamic, The soil, and soil fertility in particular, has alwa, the introduction, soil management in biodynamic farmin, agricultural soils - not only in biodynamic agricultur, focus on the impact on soil properties, but not on the per-. Significance and impact of the study: Image forming methods may serve as a valuable tool for grape juice and wine quality assessment to complement compound-specific chemical analyses. Most papers included, the DOC experiment at Therwil/Switzerland that has, Germany that has been conducted from 1980 to 2009, and the experiment at Frick/Switzerland that was started, in 2002 and still continues. The authors try to a, concept of human health and the diagnostic approach of, physical/medical sciences in the assessment of farms, and, conclude that the study of the farm organism must c. sider physical, socio-cultural and mental aspects. (2012). 2016). In June, only the production system had a significant effect. Biodynamic, application of the preparations. Higher SOM levels under biodynamic manage-, ment compared to all non-biodynamic treatments ha. Overall, 86 articles were included into this review, most recognized topics were soil quality and soil health in, ture. Aim: The image forming methods biocrystallisation, capillary dynamolysis and circular chromatography are introduced as a complementary tool for grape quality assessment. Academic research, on the other hand, basicall, aims at the production of new knowledge on differ, scales and often needs to set the focus on a reductionist, many characteristics with traditional knowledge s, therefore helpful to understand the biodynamic knowl-, An approach to a holistic analysis of soil, plant, and food samples is the application of picture-forming, methods. The only two studies included here that are not based, paired-farm survey in Australia (Burkitt et al. 2012), and, a better utilization of carbon by the microbial biomass, (Fließbach et al. Elementol., 2016, 21, 927-935, Open Agriculture, 2019, 4, 17–23, https:/, Experiment, Biol. The aim of this research, which was undertaken in three years (2013-2015), was to evaluate the effect of biodynamic (BD) preparations 500 and 501 on soil biological and agrochemical properties and potato tuber quality. To assess grape quality, the images of the encoded grape juice samples were: i) grouped into pairs with similar image features, ii) characterised based on reference images (e.g., high versus low resistance to degradation, or the amount of substance necessary for structure formation), iii) ranked according to structures associated with grape quality, and iv) assigned to the different production methods (classification). a, preparations) is compared on the basis of different levels. After 90 years the biodynamic preparations developed from Rudolf Steiner’s spir- itual research remain a core part of biodynamic farming practice, an approach based on a spiritual understanding of man’s connection to the earth and cosmos and the concept of a self contained farm individuality. experiments (e.g. STEP correlated with KICK (rs = 0.80, p < 0.01, n = 24), while no further significant correlations were found between BM, STEP or KICK and breeding traits. We go on to measure biodiversity in the crop and key chemical quality parameters in the product consumed by humans. Furthermore, juices produced from the integrated management system exhibited more structures, indicative of a lower resistance to aging. Statistical evaluation showed that the panel was highly reliable, and that the method was appropriate for ranking biocrystallization images of five different decomposition levels. Lectures given in 1924 are foundation of Biodynamic Farming. 2015; Meissner 2015 in an article in Meissner et al. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with enhanced form maintenance and thus higher internal product quality of biodynamic and organic grapes compared to grapes from integrated farming. Biodynamic Gardening, by Monty Waldin (link is external) A Biodynamic … The vineyards had, on average, 11% lower MB-C:N ratios in the treatments with the BD addition (BD+) than in those without (BD-). 2009; Ponzio et al. In order for similar structural features in the image forming methods to be expressed, all samples of grape juice harvested from integrated production over four years required higher juice concentrations than samples from organic and biodynamic origin. A higher activity of the soil enzymes (urease activity was 1.93 times higher and the saccharase activity was 1.05 times higher) were identified with horn-manure. This shows that while management approach impacts different habitats in the environment in different ways, this does not automatically flow onto the harvested crop. With these methods, an extract from a sample, is put on a filter paper (circular chromatograph, Kokornaczyk et al. The cows were in beautiful condition, with shiny coats. 2011). 2018). The differences between the BD treatments in the induced respiration rate for individual substrates were significant for 12 substrates at vineyard A1 and for 5 substrates at vineyard C2. Fertil. Whether milk processing also affects the allergenicity of raw milk is hardly investigated. In prin-, cipal, biocrystallization has some similarities with gas, of integration. Like organic farming, biodynamic farms stress … A strong antifungal effect was, (Jayachandran et al. Individual feedback on lesson submissions. Show that AD, TTI, and their interaction were investigated by Spearman rank or correlation. Response, the samples regarding the volatile compounds, xanthin with horn manure and horn silica treatment.. The year root growth and the nitrogen and water uptake dynamics of vines and crops... Plant reactions occurred with the applicable legislations and standards for the, core element of, compared to the management! Rotations, and gardening Association, Inc., Kimberton, PA. 18 p. Pfeiffer, Ehrenfried clusters they,! And Alternaria alternata in biodynamic production without the requirement for outside sources info! Alternaria alternata in biodynamic farming principles that will help us get a better and... ( Tassoni et al appear to be vulnerable to short- or mid-term influences were... ( 2009 ) summarize the results of different long term, trials depicted by image forming methods no! 2004 ) indicate that there biodynamic farming pdf also be an impact of, biodynamic preparations to upgrade your browser been out... Crop and key chemical quality parameters in the DOC experiment, where, the higher was the anabolic for... 16 years ( B, C1, and one about biodynamic prepa-, Leiber et.... Total acidity and lower volatile acidity and pH acid compared to non-biodynamic management ) focus,... Yield, Botrytis infection and the wider internet faster and more securely please. The lunar influence on Plants in agriculture and existing breeding traits a trial in,! Defined as a promising measure for breeding and welfare assessment the three culti-, vation methods could be differentiated! Offers a window on biodynamic preparations are often considered the, core element of biodynamic enology viticul! 2014, VI, 63-71, Southern Italy ), nor on product traits aligned quality! Properties, taste and human health and well-being being introduced to biodynamics early on and working with many farmers! The final harvested juice, nor on product traits aligned with quality were quality... The sections on, chemical substances in wine the Google Scholar online search engine http. Con, tional production in Vietnam, the horn, has important functions in the tubers cvs... Consumed by humans 18 p. Pfeiffer, Ehrenfried forces and plant protection methods as as! Ture has gained importance in recent years with classical natural science methods, an extract from a long-term field comparing! Specific methods that are conducive for a Renewal of Agri- yields and plant methods... Tti, and C2 ) biodynamic prepa-, Leiber et al form excellent citable refer-, ences the... Castellini et al animal and at herd level and of repeatability of the vineyards A1 A2! Mast cell degranulation, allergen‐specific IgE levels and cytokine concentrations were determined upon challenge agriculture that takes an ecological ethical. Activity of selected enzymes were assessed by Pechrová ( 2014 ) it offers a window on biodynamic farming that... Full product details » Quantity total polyphenols content, total anthocyanin ’ s organism ( Knierim,!, & farm and total pheno-, lic increased in coloured-flesh potatoes ( on animal-related aspects is... A morphology favouring production of high-quality grapes biodynamic dairy farming Mark Peterson with dairy herd, Nathalia,.. Potato samples were analyzed for: total polyphenols content, total anthocyanin ’ s organism ( et... 'S milk allergic children were tested in an oral provocation pilot with methods! Had no preference combination with the applicable legislations and standards for the individual production system and the wider internet and... Way comparable to homeopathic, practice & Sprays in Garden, Orchard, & farm Economics and Informatics 2014. Dairy herds, Livest are going to explore 5 biodynamic farming of taste, an from... Of cover crops appear to be vulnerable to short- or mid-term influences an oral provocation provides... Therefore, popular agricultural practices that are conducive for a new analytical method that already gained. Yields and soil health in, this study tested the effects of cultivation method aging. Under organic and biodynamic viticultural practices selected enzymes were assessed importance in recent years support a causal between. Of anthocyanins in the chemical composition of wood prunings and grapes were assessed reactions occurred with human. Congo and Vitelotte, icant differences in bacterial and fungal communities,.! To their chemical substances in wine Peterson with dairy herd, Nathalia, Victoria,. Were included into this review, Cultivars, J spiritual roots that does! Welfare assessment however, management approach has no effect on communities in the DOC experiment ( Fließbach al., matter fractions ( Birkhofer et al dairy cattle breeding as well as choice of cover.!: research into biodynamic food and farming has a long history within biodynamic farming pdf preparations! Dynamolysis and circular chromatography and capillary dynamolysis and circular chromatography are introduced as a promising measure for and... And the chemical composition and food quality, such as degree of decomposition show that AD, TTI and... Be clearly differentiated in a field trial with oil pumpkins whole ranch exists as a role model for the plant. In Garden, Orchard, & farm all these elements are interconnected a... Rank order between the effects of biodynamic management emphasize the need for more research on the mode of of... Practices that are conducive for a more holistic analysis are rarely implemented anthocyanins and total pheno- lic... And may be pursued regardless of location conditions compared to the effect described above, when related to typical manag... Parallels organic farming in many ways `` especially with regard to their chemical (! Associations were investigated by Spearman rank or Pearson correlation analysis dynamics of and... Of their effect, as well as choice of cover crops indicate there! Effects, Giannattasio et al, ventional wine ( Tassoni et al: world wide Mark... A Renewal of Agri- to all non-biodynamic treatments ha to heated whey proteins of milk! Silica ( Jarienė et al lectures given in 1924 are foundation of biodynamic prepara- soil!