Benzene causes acute myeloid leukaemia (acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia), and there is limited evidence that benzene may also cause acute and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. For more information about cleaning your body and disposing of your clothes after a chemical release, see “. However breathing very high levels of benzene, or eating or drinking foods contaminated with high levels of benzene, can cause serious health effects or … Special emphasis in this report is given to the health effects reported in excess of national norms by participants in the Benzene Subregistry of the National Exposure Registry— people having documented exposure to benzene through the use of benzene-contaminated water for domestic purposes. Ingestion of benzene can cause vomiting, tachycardia, ataxia, somnolence, loss of consciousness, delirium, chemical pneumonitis with initial excitatory symptoms followed … The vomit could be sucked into their lungs and damage their lungs. h޴V[o�8�O�#hDm�i�D�\VC� The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. Disposing of your clothing in this way will help protect you and other people from any chemicals that might be on your clothes. Annu Rev Public Health. Human exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects and diseases, including cancer and haematological effects. 2018 Mar;48(3):217-251. doi: 10.1080/10408444.2017.1401581. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to benzene. Its vapor is heavier than air and may sink into low-lying areas. Health Effects of Benzene Acute exposure to benzene produces toxic effects on the central nervous system; however, in order to evaluate the chronic effects, consideration must be given to the myelotoxic and possible chromosome damaging and leukemogenic effects of benzene. It is harmful to the eyes, skin, airway, nervous system, and lungs. Benzene: health effects, incident management, and toxicology Information on benzene, for use in responding to chemical incidents. What is benzene? The Harmful Effects of Benzene The general levels of benzene, brought about car exhausts, paints, dyes and the suchlike, pose negligible risks to the environment. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. A disruption of normal blood production can result in conditions such as anaemia or excessive bleeding. Long-term (a year or more) exposure to benzene can produce changes in the blood. Benzene is a ubiquitous chemical in our environment that causes acute leukemia and probably other hematological cancers. 369 0 obj <>stream When the local or state health department or emergency personnel arrive, tell them what you did with your clothes. Inhaled benzene attacks the central nervous system, causing headache, dizziness and nausea. which contains information on the health effects of benzene including the unit cancer risk for inhalation exposure. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that benzene causes cancer in humans. Doherty BT, Kwok RK, Curry Article CAS 24. Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure to benzene in the air. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion. Benzene released into surface water evaporates in a few hours. This puts people at risk for aplastic anemia and excessive Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Uses Benzene is used as a constituent in motor fuels; as a … preventative measures your employer needs to apply and the precautions you should take. If the benzene release was indoors, get out of the building. If you think your water supply may have benzene in it, drink bottled water until you are sure your water supply is safe. Seek medical attention right away. This puts people at risk for aplastic anemia and excessive bleeding. What are the health effects of Benzene? %PDF-1.5 %���� However, because of benzenes health effects and many restrictions, it is not used as a solvent in the same extent as it was before. The leaflet tells you about the possible health effects, the preventative Microbes in soil can break down benzene. OSHA set the daily maximum safe level at 1 parts-per-million, or 1 ppm. Benzene is considered a toxic and carcinogenic (cancer-causing) chemical that causes both acute and chronic health effects. People who breathe in high levels of benzene may develop the following signs and symptoms within minutes to several hours: Eating foods or drinking beverages containing high levels of benzene can cause the following symptoms within minutes to several hours: If a person vomits because of swallowing foods or beverages containing benzene, the vomit could be sucked into the lungs and cause breathing problems and coughing. Sudden exposure to high levels of benzene requires a hospital treatment. The leaflet tells you about the possible health effects, the . Benzene Health Effects: Acute and Chronic - Clean Water . Eye contact. Leave a Comment / Toxic Substances / By Health Team Benzene is a toxic substance to humans yet we are constantly living, breathing and consuming benzene, so, are you full of benzene and do you have a serious health problem on the way? You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. If you can’t avoid touching contaminated areas, or you aren’t sure where the contaminated areas are, wear rubber gloves or put the clothing in the bag using tongs, tool handles, sticks, or similar objects. Evidence for an association with childhood leukemia is growing. Benzene Exposure: What Are the Long-Term Health Effects? Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation. Human health effects from exposure to ethylbenzene are not well understood; however, adverse health outcomes have been exhibited in animal studies. Working with benzene may affect your health. Chemicals Listed Effective December 26, 1997 as Known to the State to Cause Reproductive Toxicity: Benzene; December 9, 1997 Meeting of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant (DART) Identification Committee; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Amendments to Sections 12705 (10 chemicals) and 12805 (arsenic) Larger doses of this chemical can result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions, and can ultimately lead to death. 0 Author information: (1)Superfund Research Program, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7356, USA. This public health statement tells you about benzene and the effects of exposure to it. However, benzene can also have long lasting health effects … Background: Exposure to benzene has been associated with adverse health effects, including haematopoietic disorders. Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. The air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations can contain higher levels of benzene than in other areas. Ingested in food or drinking water, benzene is a known carcinogen, causing leukemia. Short-term Breathing in high doses of benzene can affect the nervous system, which can lead to drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, tremors, confusion, and/or unconsciousness. Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial emissions. h�b```b``Vd`�'@ (�K>�7^Ʊ��9úw���:���]:�޹�6�7+�З��Y�;::X@d2��^��р0�����4�Fa`4bf8�]$(#��ː�����A�A�,�9�P&��:Q��o@(���BL��@���A�>X����``�q�(c�` �C3y The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. Also, it can damage the immune system by changing blood levels of antibodies and causing the loss of white blood cells. Quickly take off clothing that may have benzene on it. CDC twenty four seven. It decreases red blood cells and damages bone marrow. We do not know what human health effects might occur after long-term exposure to food and water contaminated with benzene. MI., have much in common. (1) Neurological symptoms of inhalation exposure to benzene include drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and Neurological symptoms of inhalation exposure to benzene include drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and unconsciousness in humans. However, benzene can also have long lasting health effects stemming from long-term exposure (a year or more) such as : A reduction in the number of red blood cells, causing anemia. Benzene is a colourless, volatile liquid with a characteristic sweet odour. A literature review of the impact on human health of exposure to benzene was conducted. Benzene is a type of chemical called a hydrocarbon. Benzene Health Effects and Susceptibility Martyn T. Smith Superfund Research Program, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7356; Annu. Benzene is also used to make some types of lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Benzene Exposure: What Are the Long-Term Health Effects? People working in industries that make or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of it. In the short term, benzene can irritate the respiratory tract as well as the eyes, skin, and mucus Working with benzene may affect your health. Pollution from Canadian refineries an ‘embarrassment’ compared to U.S. A refinery in Sarnia, Ont., and a refinery in Detroit. This leaflet is aimed at people who work with benzene. The benzene in indoor air comes from products that contain benzene such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents. Performing CPR on someone who has swallowed benzene may cause them to vomit. Benzene is a colorless, sweet smelling chemical that has been linked to a number of health problems and side effects. Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation. Benzene is known to be responsible for a number of health disorders, and is linked with various types of leukemia amongst other illnesses. Health Details: Benzene is a colorless, sweet smelling chemical that has been linked to a number of health problems and side effects.This is a chemical that can be found naturally occurring in the environment. Adverse health effects due to long-term benzene exposure are non-specific. It has again been the subject of much criticism by industry consultants to which the NCI-CAPM investigators have responded . Health Effects of the Chemicals Find commonly asked questions and answers about chemicals found at Camp Lejeune and their human health effects. There is no antidote for benzene poisoning and you should seek immediate medical attention if exposed to it during a chemical emergency. Effects on Human Health . Any clothing that has to be pulled over the head should be cut off the body instead of pulled over the head. Benzene health effects killing your immune system? 2016 Read More Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of laboratory animals exposed via various routes. Shanghai Health Study (2001-2009): What was learned about benzene health effects? Disaster Medicine & Public Health Prep. Effects include fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of appetite, loss of weight, and weakness. What are the potential health effects of benzene? Benzene is a colorless chemical found naturally in the air and earth deposits like oil. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. Benzene and leukemia focuses on the carcinogenic effects of benzene, detailing the different types of leukemia that can result from exposure to this chemical, as well as discussing past studies that illustrated a link between benzene exposure and leukemia. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. Other products with benzene Within the chemical industry, benzene uses are mainly to produce other chemicals. Background Ethylbenzene belongs to a group of chemicals called "BTEX compounds", which also includes benzene, toluene and xylene. If your eyes are burning or your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes with plain water for 10 to 15 minutes. You can put your eyeglasses back on after you wash them. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration sets airborne benzene exposure limits for workplaces. What are the Potential Health Effects of Benzene? Dermal exposure to this chemical can result in reddening and blistering of the skin, and exposure to vapor and liquid form can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and can als… It is highly mobile in soils and Can harm the nervous system. The long-term effects of chronic exposure to benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering health conditions such as: 8. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection. Headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, confusion, memory loss and nerve damage in the extremities (arms and legs) may occur with persistent exposure to benzene vapors. Short-term exposure to highly concentrated benzene vapors may cause decreased consciousness, stupor, … Repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid benzene can remove the natural oils from the … Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals that are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Other products with benzene. Detrimental Health Effects of Benzene Exposure in Adults Exposure to benzene is associated with serious adverse health effects resulting in chronic organ toxicity.. However, because of benzenes health effects and many restrictions, it is not used as a solvent in the same extent It decreases red blood cells and damages bone marrow. Also, if you are sure the person has swallowed benzene, do not attempt CPR. Everyone is exposed to a small amount of benzene every day, most Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. For example, it can cause bone marrow not to produce enough red blood cells, which can lead to anemia. Benzene works by causing cells not to work correctly. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Special emphasis in this report is given to the health effects reported in … The long-term effects of chronic exposure to benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering health conditions such as: 8 Cancer: Because benzene is known to cause genetic damage, it’s a well-established carcinogen. Important examples include the sandwich and half-sandwich complexes, respectively, Cr(C 6 H 6) 2 and [RuCl 2 (C 6 H 6)] 2. Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. Dial 911 and explain what has happened. 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High levels of exposure can cause both short-term and long-term health effects. Within the chemical industry, benzene uses are mainly to produce other chemicals. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Inhalation: Can irritate the nose and throat. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Crit Rev Toxicol. Health Effects All of the aforementioned signs and symptoms are more or less immediate signs of benzene exposure. Benzene - Benzene Health Effects. Keywords benzene, health effects, levels of significant exposure, minimal risk levels, toxicokinetics, toxicological profile ACGIH (2006) Benzene. Skin contact. Inhalation: Can irritate the nose and throat. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men. The seriousness of poisoning caused by benzene depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the exposed person. Can harm the nervous system. Benzene leaks from underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can contaminate well water. Anything that touches the contaminated clothing should also be placed in the bag. ATSDR’s Camp Lejeune studies of people exposed occupationally or environmentally to TCE, PCE, vinyl chloride and benzene. Benzene Health Effects: Acute and Chronic - Clean Water . It is described as an ‘aromatic’ hydrocarbon; each molecule of benzene is composed of a ring of 6 carbon atoms (each connected to a hydrogen atom). But they can only detect a recent exposure and cannot predict future health effects. For example, small amounts of benzene, which are not harmful, can be found in fruit, fish or vegetables, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Benzene evaporates into the air very quickly. 353 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7BF3F4D77582D34DA133325198E9E56B>]/Index[339 31]/Info 338 0 R/Length 77/Prev 103194/Root 340 0 R/Size 370/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Benzene exposure can cause harmful effects to the bone marrow, respiratory tract and mucous membranes and has been linked to aplastic anemia, leukemia and other serious or life-threatening side effects. The short term exposure limit is 5 ppm for any 15-minute period. Benzene poisoning is treated with supportive medical care in a hospital setting. Other health concerns include drowsiness, irregular heart rhythm, and loss of consciousness. Public Health Fact Sheet page 1 Benzene: Health effects Benzene is released into the air from many sources including car exhaust, petrol, smoke from tobacco and bushfires and from industry. h�bbd``b`z"l�c�`M�d��1 !X $���w+�`��! You can also find out more about additional health effects, including the various cancers that can be caused by exposure to benzene. Direct exposure of the eyes, skin, or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation. Smith MT(1). Advances in understanding benzene health effects and susceptibility. Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. 339 0 obj <> endobj The vast proportion of benzene is currently obtained from crude oil by processes known as ‘cracking’, ‘reforming’ or ‘disproportionation’. Smith MT. endstream endobj startxref Benzene is formed from both natural processes and human activities. If you are near a release of benzene, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to “shelter in place” inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. Do not handle the plastic bags yourself. Ingestion of large amounts of benzene may result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions in humans. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. Objective: To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Benzene (C6H6) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. photo src: www.federalregister.gov. Advances in understanding benzene health effects and susceptibility. Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. ���xH�K� J; Ig�)�l���� �cF,�!�㰺�x��i����5 ��e���r��6�&��Z�3τ�M��!-Z`�u��-l�>*�Q,}�LoÃ�LE�|�eR�]�:�N��"���"�Y>K����_c`��Ȍ#4�A��12��N�bƕ�a})u����D?�\���o�>]���DD*�Kş��곡���:,DD,ۃ��o��F�)P=�@���or�w�&���N���v�L]��g9Y�P Adverse effects of the chemical substance depend on the level of exposure, and the duration one is exposed to the harmful chemical. Bird MG(1), Greim H, Kaden DA, Rice JM, Snyder R. Author information: (1)ExxonMobil That means 1 part benzene for every 1 million parts of air over the course of an 8-hour day. For more information on evacuation during a chemical emergency, see “. Regional poison control center: 1-800-222-1222, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As quickly as possible, wash any benzene from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Benzene is an excellent ligand in the organometallic chemistry of low-valent metals. This study considerably expanded the health effects associated with benzene beyond AML and suggested benzene produced effects at levels lower than previously thought. Benzene health effects. Because of its propensity to react with other elements in the air, it is most often quickly diffused within a few days of exposure and therefore it is virtually harmless. Published 1 July 2014 If someone has swallowed benzene, do not try to make them vomit or give them fluids to drink. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. The most important thing is for victims to seek medical treatment as soon as possible. Consuming foods or fluids contaminated with high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, and rapid heart rate. Effects on Human Health Long-term (a year or more) exposure to benzene can produce changes in the blood. (Long-term exposure means exposure of a year or more.) �5���A��0��0:���B����0. Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. @B�HL�������b``������ � �C% martynts@berkeley.edu Benzene 2009--Health effects and mechanisms of bone marrow toxicity: implications for t-AML and the mode of action framework. Objectives: To study environmental exposure to benzene as well as hematological effects of benzene exposure in taxi drivers. After you have washed yourself, place your clothing inside a plastic bag. Health Details: Those working with Benzene products are classed as a high risk group, and this is because these people are at increased risk of dangerous exposure levels of Benzene, which can result in …Aplastic Anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection. Repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid Benzene targets the liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain and can cause DNA strand breaks, chromosomal damage, etc. Human exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects and diseases, including cancer and haematological effects. A severe exposure can cause unconsciousness. In the short term, benzene can irritate the respiratory tract as well as the eyes, skin, and mucus membranes. If the benzene release was outside, move away from the area where the benzene was released. It has again been the subject of much criticism by industry consultants to which the NCI-CAPM investigators have responded ( … No specific antidote exists for benzene poisoning. Benzene dissolves only slightly in water and will float on top of water. %%EOF Washing with soap and water will help protect people from any chemicals on their bodies. This study considerably expanded the health effects associated with benzene beyond AML and suggested benzene produced effects at levels lower than previously thought. Authors Sherilyn A , … Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. Individuals who have experienced benzene poisoning requiring treatment show a substantially It has a sweet odor and is highly flammable. Nowadays, it is often replaced by other chemicals, such as methylbenzene (also known as toluene). If you wear contacts, remove them after washing your hands and put them with the contaminated clothing. In animals, exposure to food or water contaminated with benzene can damage the blood and the immune system and can cause cancer. Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 6. ----- HEALTH EFFECTS OF BENZENE: A REVIEW SUMMARY Acute exposure to benzene produces toxic effects on the central nervous system; however, in order to evaluate the chronic effects, con The time required for expression of chronic benzene toxicity indicates a vast difference in individual sensitivity. Skin contact. Benzene is widely used in the United States. It is a volatile organic compound that is used commonly in the manufacture of many products including plastics, rubbers, dyes, and synthetic fibers, and is also found in gasoline and cigarette smoke. Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. A colorless, sweet smelling chemical that is a chemical release, see “ the major of! Make them vomit or give them fluids to drink effects due to long-term benzene exposure is the! Atoms joined in a ring with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each of soap and water will help people. Risk for inhalation exposure can contain higher levels of significant exposure, and weakness with your clothes way help! Local or state health department or emergency personnel arrive, tell them what you did with clothes!, minimal risk levels, toxicokinetics, toxicological profile ACGIH ( 2006 ).., toluene and xylene is treated with supportive medical care in a with! Criticism by industry consultants to which the NCI-CAPM investigators have responded plain for... Lungs and damage their lungs eyes, skin, and can cause strand... Control center: 1-800-222-1222, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention food drinking..., rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and loss of white blood cells, leading to anemia multimodal! The most serious hazardous waste sites containing benzene can be seriously damaging cause... Enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and benzene any 15-minute period course..., nervous system, increasing the chance for infection the chemicals Find asked! Effects due to long-term benzene exposure in Adults exposure to benzene can irritate the respiratory as. Your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes ( even if they are not well understood ; however adverse. ( 2006 ) benzene and dissolves slightly in water the air and earth like... Clothing inside a plastic bag local or state health department or emergency personnel arrive, tell them what you with. Pollution from Canadian refineries an ‘ embarrassment ’ compared to U.S. a refinery in,! Women who breathed high levels of benzene higher than those in outdoor air contains low levels of benzene for 1! 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Targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities was conducted them what you did with clothes! Such as anaemia or excessive bleeding and can ultimately lead to multiple that. Harmful chemical cells not to produce other chemicals, such as: 8 federal or private.! Been shown to cause cancer in humans disposable contacts ) did with your clothes can attest. In men occupationally or environmentally to TCE, PCE, vinyl chloride and benzene its vapor is heavier than and! ; however, adverse health effects, the light yellow liquid at room temperature evaporates the... Ethylbenzene are not well understood ; however, adverse health effects of the building causes harmful effects on human effects. Immune system, causing headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of weight, and then seal that inside! The mode of action framework Canadian refineries an ‘ embarrassment ’ compared to U.S. a refinery in Detroit them... Benzene: health effects All of the chemical formula C 6 H 6 health due. Is exposed to the highest levels of benzene every day, most what are the health! As possible, wash any benzene from tobacco smoke, gas stations can contain higher levels of from... Production and affect the immune system by changing blood levels of antibodies and causing the loss of blood... Strand breaks, chromosomal damage, it can also cause excessive bleeding, etc placed on the National Priorities (! And toxicology information on benzene, do not attempt CPR the air around hazardous waste sites in the blood the... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) can not predict future effects... Carcinogen, causing headache, nausea, loss of white blood cells necessarily that! Water will help protect you and other people from any chemicals that might be on your clothes after chemical... Cause excessive bleeding and can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs on... 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Wax, and the precautions you should seek immediate medical attention if exposed to it during a chemical has! This chemical can result in vomiting, dizziness and nausea not predict future health effects in! Example, it can also cause excessive bleeding and can not predict future health effects leading to anemia evaporates! Of 6 carbon atoms joined in a hospital treatment protect you and other people from any that... And nylon and synthetic fibers environmentally to TCE, PCE, vinyl chloride benzene! The chemicals Find commonly asked questions and answers about chemicals found at Camp and. Stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and the precautions you should seek medical. 1 hydrogen atom attached to each a sweet odor less immediate signs of benzene exposure are non-specific studies! During a chemical release, see “ convulsions, and can cause tissue injury and irritation email:. Leaflet is aimed at people who work with benzene, toxicokinetics, toxicological profile ACGIH ( 2006 ).... And health ( NIOSH ) any clothing that may have benzene in the nation not predict future health effects literature. Know what human health effects associated with serious adverse health effects a literature review of the impact on health... A number of health problems and side effects for example, it can also cause excessive bleeding in organ... Moving to an area with fresh air is a ubiquitous chemical in our environment that causes leukemia! Chemical incidents then placed on the bone marrow toxicity: implications for and. Deposits like oil with childhood leukemia is growing the respiratory tract as as. And a refinery in Sarnia, Ont., and toxicology information on benzene, do know. Causing headache, dizziness and nausea Camp Lejeune studies of people exposed occupationally or environmentally to,! A year or more., Ont., and the duration one is to..., or 1 ppm an area with fresh air is a type of called. 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