were notably absent from this policy.[22]. Her parents betrothed her to a youth of the Chadar tribe, but before the marriage could place, Mirza ran away with her. [citation needed], In 1977 Bhutto's Chief of Army Staff, General Zia ul-Haq, deposed the leader and declared martial law. Female infanticide in Pakistan had been a common practice in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent. A research studies conducted in 2002 and 2003 (by Population Council-Pakistan) reveals that a n estimated 890, 000 induced abortions occur annually in Pakistan. Extrapolating these results to estimated populations suggest that there are 8.8 million users of any FP, 5.5 million users of modern methods and 3.65 million women who avail FP services in any given year. The Kharrals were Rajputs... and never got on with each other. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or "spontaneous abortion" and occurs in approximately 30% to 40% of pregnancies. A new hotline has been launched in Pakistan that gives information about how women can use the medication misoprostol to have a safe abortion, or to prevent dangerous hemorrhaging after giving birth. [12], Families often do not want daughters because they are expected to pay dowry upon their marriage. In 2013 some of the provinces - notably Punjab - reported that they were developing their own population policies. In 2009 the Ministry of Population sought to revise the Population Policy. The Ministry of Population Welfare started planning a program in 1992 based on a similar program in Bangladesh. [1] Challenges to Pakistani's well-being, opportunities for education and employment, and access to health care are escalated due to the country's continuously-growing population. [17] Unfortunately, health care professionals do not wish to perform abortions either due to their own religious leanings, ethical stances or fear of stigmatization. [a][5] While 96 percent of married women were reported to know about at least one method of contraception, only half of them had ever used it. • An est… "[7] However, due to extreme and unrealistic goals,[vague] the USAID program was highly ineffective. [16][17] The family is viewed as the main source of honor and the community highly values the relationship between honor and the family. [23] The DHS also dispelled the popular notion that religious reasons keep families from using family planning. Mirza was a Kharral of the Sahi muhin... went as a boy to Khewa in Jhang, where he fell in love with his cousin Sahiban, the daughter of the chief man of the place. [7], Pakistani journalist/researcher Ayesha Khan has suggested various reasons for Ayub Khan's position on population control. Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #15: The Role of Lady Health Workers in Family Planning in Pakistan. That should be avoided at any cost. ); while the overall quantum services by the Government and those that self procure commodities from stores remained the same. Abortion in Pakistan is not a go-to option. [2] Though Pakistan's fertility rates still exceed those of neighboring South Asian countries with a total fertility rate at 4.1 (3.3 children in urban settings and 4.5 children in rural areas) and contraception use is lower than 35 percent, approximately one-fourth of Pakistani women wish to either delay the birth of their next child or end childbearing altogether. [17] Therefore, it currently plays an important role in the provision of care of patients undergoing abortions. 1 According to a recent national study, women in Pakistan had an estimated 2.25 million abortions in 2012, equivalent to an abortion rate of 50 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age—nearly double the rate estimated … The policy's goals include reducing population growth (from 2.1 percent in 2002 to 1.3 by 2020), reducing fertility through voluntary family planning (from 4 births per woman in 2004 to 2.1 births per woman by 2020), and as a signatory to the Programme of Action developed at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, Pakistan pledged to provide universal access to family planning by 2010. "[7] This ideology is still present in Pakistan, as the organized religious party opposes family planning because it is "un-Islamic". [29], "Infanticide is on the rise in Pakistan | Al Jazeera America", "Preference for boys and length of birth intervals in Pakistan", "Have a Son, Gain a Voice: Son Preference and Female Participation in Household Decision Making", "Preference for Boys and Length of Birth Intervals in Pakistan", "Son preference and within-household bargaining position of Pakistani women", "Money matters: Gender equality and a baby's sex in Pakistan", "Evidence of son preference and resulting demographic and health outcomes in Pakistan", http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadm056.pdf, "Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan 2001-2002: A Nationally Representative Survey", To estimate an equation explaining the determinants of Dowry, A general theory of gender preferences for children, "Abandoned, Aborted, or Left for Dead: These Are the Vanishing Girls of Pakistan", https://iussp.org/sites/default/files/event_call_for_papers/SRB%20Abstract%20-%20IUSSP%202013_fin.pdf, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/abortion/doc/pakistan.doc, "Karachi becoming a killing field for newborn girls", "Infanticide on the rise: 1,210 babies found dead in 2010, says Edhi", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Female_infanticide_in_Pakistan&oldid=988095277, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 01:22. [1] It was estimated in 2005 that Pakistan's population totaled 151 million; a number which grows 1.9 percent annually, equaling a 2.9 million population growth per year. Both groups of women provide door to door health and family planning services, supplied with oral and injectable contraceptives and condoms to distribute to their communities. Health and Policy Planning. For medical abortion (MA), a combination of two drugs, Mifepristone and Misoprostol is used. However, the large discovery in Karachi shows that many of the female infants were killed because of the local Islamic clerics, who ordered out of wedlock babies should be disregarded. The tragic adventure of Mirza and Sahiban is said to have been the cause of desperate quarrels. A brief version of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012 was released in October 2013. The Indian Penal Code, enacted in 1860 and written in accordance with contemporaneous British law, declared induced abortion illegal.Induced abortion was defined as purposely "causing miscarriage". Unsafe abortions make up to 6 percent of all maternal deaths. Changes in CPR between Pakistan DHS 2006 and 2012, "Assessment of a New Approach to Family Planning Services in Rural Pakistan". [30], Rural and Urban Healthcare Disparities That Contribute to Pakistan’s High Child Mortality Rate. [1], During the 19th century, the Northwest British India one-fourth of the population preserved only half the daughters, while other 3/4th of the population had balanced sex ratio. [19] [1] In the 1990s, women increasingly reported to wanting fewer children, and 24 percent of recent births were reported to be unwanted or mistimed. Research and Development Solution - Evidence to Policy Action: Briefs on Family Planning, Rahnuma- Family Planning Association of Pakistan, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Birth control movement in the United States, Timeline of reproductive rights legislation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Family_planning_in_Pakistan&oldid=997401773, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 09:31. [1] One-fourth of married women are estimated to have an unmet need. The Official Abortion Law. Pakistan provides both medical as well as surgical abortion services. Pakistan's Lady Health Worker programme. Isqat-i-Hamal. [5] In Pakistan, many local religious figures are supportive of family planning and have begun discussions in their communities in order to promote the health of women and children.[5]. In a move looking to counter Bhutto's government and as a gesture to his religious constituency, Zia froze the existing family planning program and banned publicity for family planning activities. While Pakistan is not among those countries which lets women make this decision on her body, the abortion laws … [1] At present there is no federal ministry of health or population welfare and therefore no population policy. Population Reference Bureau. In 2012, the year of their last study, the Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2.25 million abortions in Pakistan with 623,000 women treated for post-abortion complications. Abortion has been a controversial subject in many societies on religious, moral, ethical, practical, and political grounds. However, under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, the Ministry was devolved and its responsibilities were shifted to Provincial Population Welfare Departments. Before 1971. 338. In the DHS less than 10% of FP nonusers cited a religious reason for their non-use. Wajihuddin Ahmed, the Family Planning Commissioner during Yahya Khan's rule, focused on reducing pregnancies in women "rather than meeting contraceptive targets alone" and introducing the pill to Pakistani women. However, murdering of the fetus – abortion, is one of the most sinister taboos of our society… In a country like Pakistan, where abortion is considered to be the one of the most perplexing of all difficulties a couple or an individual faces, almost 900,000 cases of premature-murders are reported annually. "Pakistan: Debating Islam and family planning." [24], In 2017, two Pakistani organisations discovered large cases of infanticide in Pakistani cities. Muslim populations are incredibly diverse, varying by race, language, and degree of religious conservatism. Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860), Chapter XVI, Section 338 (A)- (C). Waheed, a member of the All-Pakistan Women's Association, began advocating for birth control when her maid died from an attempt to abort her own pregnancy. [7] Khan spoke at the FPAP's first national seminar in 1959, speaking on the ‘menace over overpopulation'. December 2001. IRIN. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. A report from 1884 states: The Kharrals are the most northerly of the great Ravi tribes, occupying a great portion of the land between Gugera and the Lahore district on both sides of the river, and extending some distance into the Gujranwala district. His office is meant to set the national family planning agenda, but Khan described the situation as "a bureaucratic mess." 23 percent of these women are hospitalized for treatment of complications. While 50 out of 1000 women resort for abortion between the ages of 16-50. This is comparable to the late C20th sex ratio in the area, now divided between India and Pakistan.[2]. * 1 In 2006–2007, 24% of all births in Pakistan were unintended. [27], The preliminary DHS report does not report sources of FP services but analysis of government's contraceptive prevalence report suggests that 44% avail public sector services and that the role of NGOs has increased from 11% in 2006-7 to around 40%. [7] His successor Yahya Khan did little more than watch as a civil war ripped apart East and West Pakistan in 1971. Surgical procedures that are available are Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) and Dilation and Evacuation (D&E). This was lead by the Edhi Foundation and Chhipa Welfare Foundation. The family honor is an abstract concept involving the perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects the social standing and the self-evaluation of a group of related people, both corporately and individually. According to the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, Pakistan's rates of child mortality (neonatal mortality rate: 44.2; infant mortality rate: 61.2; child under 5 mortality rate: 74.9)[10] nearly double the worldwide average (neonatal mortality rate: 18; infant mortality rate: 29.4; child under 5 mortality rate: 39.1)[11] set by UNICEF Global. [18][19], When a comparison of the private sector and public sector was made with regards to abortion and post-abortion care provided, it was noted that the private sector performed more abortions and took on double the case-load of post-abortion care, as opposed to the public sector. "[7], In 1969, Ayub Khan was overthrown by the joint action of Islamist parties and the leftist Pakistan People's Party. [1][5] The most commonly reported reasons for married women electing not to use family planning methods include the belief that fertility should be determined by God (28 percent); opposition to use by the woman, her husband, others or a perceived religious prohibition (23 percent); infertility (15 percent); and concerns about health, side effects or the cost of family planning (12 percent). They know of 890 newborns killed in 2008, 999 in 2009 and about 1,210 in 2010, and this counts only the large cities. One study in 2002 showed that in areas with 2 or more community-based workers there was a 7% increase in the use of modern, reversible contraceptive methods. Since 1997 abortions carried out before the unborn child’s organs have been formed are prohibited except when performed in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman or providing necessary … The rate in 2012 was 50 abortions for every 1,000 women aged 15 to 44. The reason given by the local authorities were poverty and local customs, where boys are preferred to girls. Khan, Ayesha. Demographics play a large role in Pakistan's development and security since the recent change from military rule to civilian leadership. The shortcomings of Pakistan’s law has produced devastating results. 4 billion (US$42 million) a year on FP but nearly 90% of this goes towards salaries and overheads and commodities account for 7-14% of these funds. The aim of these services was to reduce the fertility rate and slow population growth. Boonstra, Healther. "[7], Near the end of Zia's era of power, family planning and population control became tied to the Ministry of Health (Pakistan). Zia enforced strict laws against adultery (punishable by death), rape, intoxication, and theft. [7] Son preference prevails in rural areas, due to male inheritance of agricultural land, and males being seen as better suited to work the land. As of 2016, the abortion rate in the U.S. was highest among women aged 20 to 24 years with around 19 legal abortions reported per 1,000 women in this age group. • The proportion of women thought to have complications from abortion procedures performed by traditional birth attendants ranges from 55% among nonpoor urban women to 68% among poor rural women. At over 2000 dowry-related deaths per year, and annual rates exceeding 2.45 deaths per 100,000 women from dowry-related violence, Pakistan has the highest reported number of dowry death rates per 100,000 women in the world. [1], The Family Planning Association of Pakistan (FPAP), now called "Rahnuma", was founded in Lahore by Saeeda Waheed in 1953. [1], According to Dr. Ansar Ali Khan, an advisor of reproductive health to the United Nations Population Fund in Pakistan, "A combination of factors like non-availability of services, baseless traditional beliefs and misconception play a big role. This program recruited married women, with at least 10 years of schooling, that lived in rural areas, and trained them to provide family planning services to their communities. [18] The conduct of family members reflects upon family honor and the way the family perceives itself, and is perceived by others. [28] An evaluation of the lady health worker program showed only a marginal improvement in FP among health indicators the populations served of around 5-6%. Over the 15-year span of 1964-1979, USAID "spent over $30 million on Pakistan's population programme; during 1965–75 US AID provided 40% of total programme inputs. Secondly, development ideology during Khan's time of power warned of the economic risks of high population growth rates. [7] Soon after the seminar, the National Board of Family Planning was established as a policy-advising body for the federal government. In 1998, 391 infant girls were found dead, about 68 in 1999, 59 in 2000, 51 in 2001, and 39 in 2002. Even though there is considerable demand for family planning in Pakistan, the adoption of family planning has been hampered by government neglect, lack of services and misconceptions. [7], In 1971, while the country was split apart and international assistance halted due to army atrocities in Bangladesh, the Pakistan Peoples Party took power of the Pakistani government. The death of the victim is viewed as a way to restore the reputation and honour of the family. In order to avoid such problems related to the honor culture, families reject altogether the idea of having daughters. "Policy-making in Pakistan's population programme." The revisions sought to conform better to Islamic teachings regarding offenses against the human body. In Pakistan, as in many Islamic and South Asian countries, induced abortion is against the law except to save a woman’s life. In 1990, the Pakistan government revised the colonial-era Penal Code of 1860 with respect to abortion. Women bearing at least one son have higher say in household decision-making. Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million. [5], When Ayub Khan was overthrown in 1969, religious demonstrators attempted to discredit the leader morally using the slogan "Family planning, for those who want free sex! This custom of female infanticide was common among the Kharrals till Colonel Hamilton, Commissioner of Multan, persuaded them to discontinue it. Edhi Foundation has found 355 such dead infants from the garbage dumps across the country in 2017; 99 percent of them were identified girls. [8] Although the nation has recently been making active efforts to adhere to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals[9] that aims to reduce global infant mortality by two-thirds, their efforts have fallen short as a large population of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan resides in rural areas where the nation's efforts have rarely been seen. Approximately 25% had an unmet for Family Planning, of this around 2/3rd was for limiting and the rest for spacing. Instead, govt must encourage use of contraceptives through advertisement campaigns. This was lead by the Edhi Foundation and Chhipa Welfare Foundation. [1] Though Pakistan was one of the first Asian countries to begin a family planning program with some help from international donors, fertility has declined slower than in neighboring countries. Historically, political strife and cultural restrictions on women constraining their empowerment have hampered implementation of family planning strategies throughout the country. “I have read the report titled “Post‐Abortion Care in Pakistan: A National Study”, and acknowledge and agree with the information, data and findings contained". [7] At the onset of the program, condoms were the most available method of contraception, but by 1966 the Intrauterine Device (IUD) had replaced it has the "corner-stone" of the Scheme. But it is no longer a common practice both in Pakistan and India via steps taken by local polices and Governments and Ordinances made in both neighbours. [5][6][7][8][9] Parent fertility remains incomplete until and unless the desired number of boys are born. If the women hospitalized for abortion complications are typical, most women who have induced abortions in Pakistan are married and already have more children than the average Pakistani woman wants . However, at the time of writing, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Punjab are working on individual Health and Population strategies. A study released in 2005, by the Population Council of Pakistan and the Guttmacher Institute, found that 890,000 abortions occur in Pakistan every year and, given that this data was collected mostly through women hospitalized for post abortion complications, one can expect this figure to be grossly understated. Girls who are unwanted are often forced into early marriage. The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. [7] Its leader, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, needed to gain legitimacy and popularity by taking an anti-American, anti-capitalist, and anti-Ayub Khan-stance. In Pakistan, high levels of unmet need (25%) and low levels of contraceptive use (30%) put women at risk for unintended pregnancies. [27], In the 1990s, two agencies in Pakistan started village-based community health worker programs in Pakistan. 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