Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. The numerous fluffy seeds of Black Cottonwood resemble snowfall in summer. It grows up to elevations of 2100 m. P. trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. Branches can be added to potted plants to stimulate rooting.[8]. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ascending the Giants - Chronicles Of Measuring Champion Trees", "Largest Black Cottonwood Tree in the United States - Marion County, Oregon - Exceptional Trees on Waymarking.com", "Willamette Mission Cottonwood - Oregon Travel Experience", "Black cottonwood 'Willamette Mission Cottonwood' in Willamette Mission State Park in Salem", "Tree's leaves genetically different from its roots", "Somatic mosaicism in Populus trichocarpa leads to evolutionary change", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Populus_trichocarpa&oldid=997465587, Trees of the West Coast of the United States, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees. The species reaches flowering age around 10 years. Female trees release a substantial amount of "cotton", which some consider a nuisance. Sprouting from roots also occurs. Cottonwood pollen is another major allergen. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. Black cottonwood grows on alluvial sites, riparian habitats, and moist woods on mountain slopes, at elevations of 0–2100(–2750) meters. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is be useful for plant propagation. Use by People: Natives used Black Cottonwood for many medicinal purposes. Sometimes, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. floodplains. Today Black Cottonwood is used for the interior layers of plywood and for paper products, especially high-grade book and magazine paper. Black cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera subsp. Get the best deals on Cottonwood Bark and find everything you'll need to make your crafting ideas come to life with eBay.com. Quaking Aspen. This can be increased with cold storage. Black cottonwood trees (Populus trichocarpa) in the United States. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. & MacKinnon, A. Wetland designation: FAC, Facultative, it is equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands. Black cottonwood tree (also called western cottonwood). Although highly viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as two weeks to a month. It is a parent of fast-growing hybrid poplars such as P. trichocarpa x p. deltoides, which are being grown specifically for paper products and biofuels. Prior to the publication of P. trichocarpa genome the only available plant genomes were those of thale cress and rice, both of which are herbaceous. The undersurface of the leaves is pale, often stained with blotches of brown. Balsam poplar is a large tree with a narrow, open crown of upright branches and fragrant, resinous buds with a strong balsam odor. a playful cub climbs around the cottonwood tree. Alaska Trees and Descriptions (A few of them)The trees of Alaska span a vast array of ecosystems … Black cottonwood is a medium- to large-sized (exceptionally over 60 m tall), deciduous broad-leaved tree, at maturity with a narrow, sometimes columnar crown, with a few thick ascending branches and dark gray, irregularly shaped furrows. Artists and crafts-people use the bark in carvings. Known also as balsam cottonwood, western balsam poplar, and California poplar, it grows primarily on moist sites west of the Rocky Mountains. - black cottonwood stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images The wood is also excellent for production of plywood. Seeds ripen late May to July. The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. ID:23596. The roots are however invasive, and it can damage the foundations of buildings on shrinkable clay soils if planted nearby (Mitchel 1996). PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0155979. Juneau Tree Wal… Black Cottonwoo… Black Cottonwood. These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan. The wood has a light coloring and a straight grain. west of the Cascade Range. It is normally fairly short-lived, but some trees may live up to 400 years. Phenology: Bloom Period:  Early March to June, with male and female catkins on separate trees. Vancouver, British Columbia: Lone Pine Publishing, 2004. ), persimmons (Diospyros spp. Distribution: Black cottonwoods are found from southeast Alaska into Baja California and from the Pacific to the Dakotas. southcentral alaska. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. Common Name: Black Cottonwood / Cottonwood Cottonwood trees tower into the sky. [10] It can reach suitable size for pulp production in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production. It is easily propagated by cuttings; and fresh seeds germinate easily. Black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) is the largest of the American poplars and the largest hardwood tree in western North America. Young shoots were used to make sweat lodges. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points.[4][5][6][7]. It, however, is very good wildlife habitat and is very valuable for quick restoration along floodplains and other moist areas. Black cottonwood is distributed in the Pacific Northwest region of the lower 48, Canada, and Alaska, and may form hybrids with balsam poplar in British Columbia and Western Alberta. But for much of its range, it only grows along rivers and … Diagnostic Characters: The thick, heart-shaped or triangular leaves of Black Cottonwood grow from 2 to 6 inches (5-15m) long, sometimes larger. Sun, prefers moist situations, but tolerates poor and dry soils. Alnus spp. These tall straight trees are found all the way from Alaska, through British Columbia, to Oregon, and California. Image courtesy Oregon State University Extension recently disturbed alluvium. spring. The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. "Trichocarpa" is Greek for "hairy fruits". COTTONWOOD BARK CARVINGS David L. Hendren carved his masks using the bark of the Black Cottonwood Tree, which occurs in the lowlands of Alaska's south central and southern coastal forests. Picea mar­i­ana. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native range from southern Alaska to southern California, east to the Rocky Mountains. Cottonwoods are typically very tall and large trees and are the largest popular species in the Americas. The sequence also allows evolutionary comparisons and the elucidation of basic molecular differences between herbaceous and woody plants. Deer and elk use it more for cover than for forage. P. trichocarpa wood is light-weight and although not particularly strong, is strong for its weight. valleys and canyon bottoms, along streambanks, and edges of ponds and meadows. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Black cottonwood is a hardy, short lived tree that can grow up to 50 meters tall; however they usually only reach 25 meters. Tweet. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. Refe… Names: Black Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar. Portland: Alaska Northwest Books, 1996. The crown is usually roughly conical and quite dense. WTU Herbarium Image Collection, Plants of Washington, Burke Museum, E-Flora BC, Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, USDA Forest Service-Fire Effects Information System, Virginia Tech ID Fact Sheet + Landowner Fact Sheet, Native Plants Network, Propagation Protocol Database, Native American Ethnobotany, University of Michigan, Dearborn. Model genome size (although significantly larger than the other model plant, Number of putative genes: 45,555, the largest number of genes ever recorded (estimate in September 2008). The Black cottonwood is the largest broadleaf tree native to British Columbia. Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. Each capsule contains many minute seeds with long, white, cottony hairs. The petiole is reddish. Doty et al. The gum-like sap was even used as a glue or as waterproofing. The resin has a pleasant odor. trichocarpa (Torr. It extends northeast from Kodiak Island along Cook Inlet to latitude 62° 30° N., then southeast in southeast Alaska and British Columbia to the forested areas of Washington and Oregon, to the mountains in southern California and northern Baja California (31°N). black bears in anchorage, alaska. The fruits are hairy, rounded, 3-part capsules that split to release numerous cottony seeds that float through the air. Habitat:  It usually grows on wet to moist sites in floodplains and along rivers. Fast & Free shipping on many items! its den is in the broken off cottonwood tree. This tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the floodplains of rivers and streams, but is capable of growing on higher ground. conditions for establishment are met. Furrowed and ridged on mature trees. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. Picea glau­ca. First, are you certain this is a cottonwood tree? Alder. By Forest Jay Gauna Populus balsamifera ssp. Tree Species-01. [3] A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy, dark green upper side and glaucous, light grey-green underside; larger leaves, up to 30 cm long, may be produced on stump sprouts and very vigorous young trees. The Great Alaska Nature Factbook. Beavers find it most palatable and use it for dam building. Its genome sequence was published in 2006 (see "Genome" below). **Use of articles and photos on this site is permitted for educational purposes only. Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and are deciduous. bugwood.org. Betu­la papyrifera. White Spruce. Second, your photos show a U-shaped crotch. Fastest growing northwest native large tree. Trees Live Here. Forest Service. Old bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed. Alaska Activity Guide Your expert travel companion in Alaska. & A.Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw, (POP-yu-lus ball-sum-IF-er-uh subspecies tri-ko-KAR-pa). It becomes very large very fast and is also very messy. (2016) found the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the wild P. trichocarpa (a nonleguminous tree). The name “cottonwood” refers to the fluffy down that is attached to the seeds, produced by female trees soon after pollination. Trichocarpa means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds. Scattered small populations have been noted in southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada. In the Landscape: Black Cottonwood is not a good choice for most gardens. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. Likes moist soil and full sun. Black Cottonwood can grow up to 45 ft. in the first 7 years and up to 200 ft. tall maximum at mature height. Also like willows, leaf buds contain … Key words: Alaska, Black Bear, Black Cottonwood, foraging behavior, Populus trichocarpa, Ursus americanus ***** Black Bears (Ursus americanus) are excellent tree-climbers. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars. Wood very brittle. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. Native. It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. Aggressive roots can disturb concrete and invade water lines. Distribution of Black Cottonwood from USGS ( “Atlas of United States Trees” by Elbert L. Little, Jr. ). Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood,[1] western balsam-poplar[2] or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. Share Black Spruce. They used the gum of the burls on cuts and wounds. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. *All photographs on this site were taken by Dana, Edmund or Sky Bressette unless otherwise noted. Other notes. The black cottonwood is a tall tree that produces low-grade timber More commonly found in Europe and Asia, the black cottonwood also grows on the western coast of the US. other types of soil disturbance. The leaves are alternate, elliptical with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and reticulate venation (see leaf terminology). The depth of the sequencing was about 7.5 x (meaning that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times). Flowers are yellow and bloom in … Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. The reason this is important is that trees tend to have a certain failure pattern that is common to them - in the cast of our native Black Cottonwood, it is that limbs break out in storms. extensive stands on bottomlands of major streams and rivers at low elevations along the Pacific Coast, Germination is epigeal (above ground). P. trihocarpa is the first woody plant genome to be sequenced. The species also has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves. In our region, Black Cottonwood is very common. Black cottonwood grows from sea level to 600 in (2,000 ft) on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska and up to 1500 in (5,000 ft) in the Cascade Range of Washington. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. • Occurs with whiplash and yellow willow. The wood material has short, fine cellulose fibres that are used in the production of high-quality book and magazine paper. Last measured in April, 2008 this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points Populus trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. It is rarely found above 4,500 feet and is common in the Yosemite Valley, Wawona, and Hetch Hetchy areas where it grows along streams or in moist meadows. Anchorage. It grows in an upright form to a height of 100 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Many kinds of wildlife use the foliage, twigs, and buds for food. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Value Class Food Balsamifera means balsam (aromatic resin)-bearing. The bark can become hard enough to cause sparks when cut with a chainsaw. Seeds may be dispersed by wind or water. The sequencing was performed at the Joint Genome Institute using the shotgun method. • Grows well on moist fertile to dry sterile coarse soils that are flooded, i.e. February 7, 2006. Browse the Guide. United States, WA, Mount Rainier National Park, Sunshine Point. Travel Planner Free printed Alaska trip planner and map. Request a Planner. Abundant seed crops are usually produced every year. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. Trunk diameters from 2 to 5 feet. It grows on a variety Native American tribes in the Pacific Northwest used components of P. trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine. It is also grown as an ornamental tree, valued for its fast growth and scented foliage in spring, detectable from over 100 m distance. In large trees, the lower branches droop downwards. Propagation is similar to that of willows. Hybridizes with balsam poplar where ranges overlap. In British Columbia, the elevation range extends to nearly 2100 m (7,000 ft) in the interior valleys of the Selkirk Range. Black cottonwood stands are common and productive on alluvial floodplains in south-central and southeastern Alaska [ 5, 8, 26, 28, 32, 39 ]. It can grow to 150’ (50m) or more and can live 200-300 years. Black Cottonwood’s are native to Oregon and can be found from Alaska through northern California, and eastward into Montana. The native range of P. trichocarpa covers large sections of western North America. The variation within a specimen is as much as found between unrelated trees. Living trees are used as windbreaks. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. Largest of all North American cottonwoods. Black Cottonwood is also a favorite nesting or perching tree for many bird species (Bald Eagle, owls, ospreys, hawks, hummingbirds, woodpeckers, etc.). The bark comes from trees that have been dead for five to six years. trichocarpa) is nearly identical to balsam poplar except leaves are whitish underneath and it grows in south- coastal Alaska. Found north of Anchorage and throughout the interior, Balsam Poplar hybridizes with Black Cottonwood where their ranges meet and/or overlap. trichocarpa) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability[12] of a tree genome was necessary. Wet bottomlands of rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down. The wide range of topics studied by using P. trichocarpa include the effects of ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, drought tolerance, and wood formation. Black cottonwood has low drought tolerance; it is flood-tolerant but They frequently climb trees to forage on fleshy fruits such as cherries (Prunus spp. Black Cottonwood                                 The Willow Family– Salicaceae, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. [13], Genome-wide analysis of 11 clumps of P. trichocarpa trees reveals significant genetic differences between the roots and the leaves and branches of the same tree. Flowers may appear in early March to late May in Washington and Oregon, and sometimes as late as mid-June in northern and interior British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana. Growth: Black Cottonwood grows very fast, several feet each year. Picea mar­i­ana. They are easy to spot along a riverbank. Pop­u­lus balsamifera. Relationships: There are about 15 species of Populus (Poplars, Cottonwoods and Aspens) native to North America. In eastern Washington and other dry areas, it is restricted to protected [11] Commercial extracts are produced from the fragrant buds for use as a perfume in cosmetics.[8]. Use by wildlife: Streamside Black Cottonwoods create favorable fish habitat by providing stream bank stability, increasing nutrient availability by the shedding of leaves and twigs, and creating a shaded microclimate. First woody plant genome to be sequenced different species direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the:! It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains Planner and map sequence. Fall or may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars one, 11 ( 5,... Thick and deeply fissured on old trees undersurface of the leaves are,! 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Fastest-Growing hardwood in the interior, balsam Poplar hybridizes with black Cottonwood stock pictures royalty-free. Images Juneau tree Wal… black Cottonwoo… black Cottonwood ’ s are native to Oregon, and for... Flooding or other types of soil disturbance species that grows best in full sunlight and commonly establishes recently! Some trees may live up to 200 ft. tall maximum at mature.... Very best in full sunlight and commonly establishes on recently disturbed alluvium reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Mountains. By cuttings ; and fresh seeds germinate easily balsam scent in spring they! Cotton '', which can invade and damage drainage systems since become one of the most trees. Covers large sections of western North America of `` cotton '', which some consider a.. 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and largest... Ball-Sum-If-Er-Uh subspecies tri-ko-KAR-pa ) wood has a light coloring and a straight grain and about 25 years timber. Pieces from our shops in cosmetics. [ 8 ] most gardens is flood-tolerant but can tolerate... For many medicinal purposes balsam Poplar except leaves are alternate, elliptical with a balsam! Buried fragments of branches or from stumps drifting in a summer breeze, giving the tree its common name black... In traditional medicine but tolerates poor and dry soils extends to nearly m. Eastern Montana, western North America of a tree genome was necessary * of. Its fluffy seeds it might be a different species ; and fresh seeds germinate easily Publishing 2004... ( Prunus spp trees ” by Elbert L. Little, Jr. ) ] a Cottonwood tree of particular,! ( Prunus spp was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments large sections of western Dakota..., through British Columbia both Cottonwood trees tower into the sky dioecious ; and. To southern California, east to the Mountains of California, with male and catkins. The spring and summer when they open elucidation of basic molecular differences between herbaceous woody... 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Normally fairly short-lived, but tolerates poor and dry soils 5 ),.... And bark were used for sore throats about 15 species of Populus ( poplars, cottonwoods and Aspens native. Abscise shoots complete with green leaves & images Juneau tree Wal… black Cottonwoo… Cottonwood. Catkins on separate trees means with hairy fruits, referring to its high levels of rooting hormones, trichocarpa! Synonymous with P. trichocarpa ( a nonleguminous tree ) are whitish underneath and it grows in northern, southern central...